[3. Another kid bites your child and the skin is broken. Head to the ER?
No, but you should call your pediatrician right away. She may decide to send you there, depending on the location of the bite and how it looks. You should also wash the wound immediately and thoroughly with soap and warm water, then apply an antibiotic ointment and bandage. "The human mouth is the dirtiest in the animal kingdom, containing oodles of really nasty bacteria that can cause serious infections," says Dr. Zibners. For this reason, it's likely your child's doctor will prescribe an oral antibiotic, to be on the safe side.
4. Your tot's frolicking barefoot in the grass and lands on a bee -- youch! Head to the ER?
Only if you know he's allergic or shows signs of an allergic reaction for the first time, which usually occurs within minutes or up to a couple of hours. (The signs may include difficulty breathing; wheezing or difficulty swallowing; swelling of the face, throat, or mouth tissue; red, itchy hives that spread beyond the area where he was stung; anxiety; or dizziness.) If your child has a prescription EpiPen -- a prefilled syringe of epinephrine, a hormone that temporarily reverses an allergic reaction -- give him the shot, then head to the ER.
If your child's not allergic, you should be able to treat him yourself even if he's screaming his head off (bee stings really, really hurt). Step one is to get that stinger out -- stat. It continues to discharge venom for a few seconds, so quick action may minimize your child's reaction. "The newest thinking is that the speed of stinger removal is more important than the method," says Dr. Zibners. You can use tweezers, pinch it between your thumb and forefinger, or scrape it out with a butter knife or credit card. Then apply a cool compress. You can give your child Children's Benadryl -- check with your pediatrician about the appropriate dosage -- or apply calamine lotion if he's itchy. The worst pain is usually over in about two hours, but some initial swelling, discomfort, and itching at the site of the sting is totally normal, says Dr. Frush.