You are here

A Guide to Vaccines

HEPATITIS B

SIDE EFFECTS

None known.

WHEN IT'S GIVEN

By injection at 0 to 2 months; at 1 to 4 months; and at 6 to 18 months.

PROTECTS AGAINST

A viral infection that can lead to chronic inflammation of the liver.

DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, AND PERTUSSIS (DTAP)

SIDE EFFECTS

A low-grade fever within 24 hours; the skin at injection site may be red and irritated for 48 hours.

WHEN IT'S GIVEN

By injection at 2, 4, and 6 months; between 15 and 18 months; and between 4 and 6 years.

PROTECTS AGAINST

Diptheria: An infection of the tonsils and upper airway that causes a sore throat and fever.

Tetanus: An infection from animal bites or soil-contaminated wounds that shuts down the central nervous system.

Pertussis (whooping cough): A respiratory-tract infection that results in a dry hack, which worsens over time.

H. INFLUENZA TYPE B (HIB)

SIDE EFFECTS

None known.

WHEN IT'S GIVEN

By injection at 2, 4, and 6 months; and between 12 and 15 months.

PROTECTS AGAINST

A respiratory-tract infection, characterized by fever and chills, that is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis  -- a serious condition that can cause mental retardation.

POLIO

SIDE EFFECTS

None known.

WHEN IT'S GIVEN

By injection at 2 and 4 months; then either orally or by injection between 6 and 18 months and 4 and 6 years. (See right.)

PROTECTS AGAINST

A viral infection that causes spinal-cord inflammation, fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting, muscle stiffness, and, in some strains, paralysis.

Note: Beginning in January 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend giving the vaccine by injection only to eliminate the risk of paralytic polio, which, in rare cases, has been associated with the oral vaccine when given at 2 and 4 months.

MEASLES, MUMPS, RUBELLA (MMR)

SIDE EFFECTS

In 10 percent of children, a low- grade fever and a rash within 10 days.

WHEN IT'S GIVEN

By injection at 12 to 18 months; and again at 4 to 6 years.

PROTECTS AGAINST

Measles: An infection characterized by a red, itchy body rash that's accompanied by fever, brassy cough, sneezing, and nasal congestion.

Mumps: An infection causing fever, headaches, and chills, and painful enlargement of the salivary glands that limits jaw movement.

Rubella: An infection causing an itchy rash that begins on the face.

VARICELLA

SIDE EFFECTS

In 3 to 4 percent of children, a mild case of the chicken pox.

WHEN IT'S GIVEN

By injection between 12 and 18 months.

PROTECTS AGAINST

Chicken Pox: An infection caused by a herpes-type virus in which itchy, pimple-like spots cover most of the body and are often accompanied by fever, headaches, and body aches.

comments