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Are You Infected?

Human papilloma virus (HPV)

Stats An estimated 75 percent of the U.S. reproductive-age population is infected. symptoms In some people, certain strains of HPV can cause genital warts; others can cause cervical cancer.

Testing A Pap smear, which detects changes in cervical cells, can indicate an infection or the early stages of cancer. A follow-up DNA test can confirm the presence of HPV. Testing in pregnancy if warts aren't present isn't usually necessary because the virus is so prevalent and the risk of transmission is so low.

Risks A woman with HPV may get genital warts for the first time during pregnancy or find that her current warts grow larger. The risk of transmission during delivery is less than 1 percent. In these infants, there is a slight chance that they will later develop the virus in their larynx (voice box). If a woman has large genital warts close to her due date, a c-section may be considered.

Treatment While it's considered safe during pregnancy to freeze or laser the warts or put acid on them, many healthy women appear to get rid of HPV over time.


Stats The condition affects an estimated 5 million women each year.

Symptoms Often called "trich," it can cause a foul-smelling or green vaginal discharge, vaginal itching, or redness within six months of infection. Other symptoms can include painful sexual intercourse, lower abdominal discomfort, and the urge to urinate. Testing A doctor can diagnose trichomoniasis by examining vaginal discharge.

Risks Untreated it can cause preterm labor. Mother-to-baby transmission of the parasite is rare.

Treatment Antibiotics after the first trimester.