If you regularly have pain with intercourse and excessive pain before and during your periods that doesn’t improve with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication such as ibuprofen, you may be suffering from endometriosis.
The chronic disease, in which the tissue lining the uterus migrates to other pelvic structures—including the ovaries and fallopian tubes—affects 10 to 15 percent of women who menstruate. The body reacts to this misplaced tissue by forming scar tissue, which can prevent the fallopian tubes from picking up the egg and fertilization can’t occur. The condition can be diagnosed with a laparoscopy, which involves inserting a small lighted tube through an incision, usually near the navel. This procedure can also remove or vaporize the growths, which some studies show can double the pregnancy rate. With more severe cases, in vitro fertilization can be helpful because it bypasses the tubes altogether.