Ann Wood's* son Daniel almost died when he was 2 -- from a snack. At first, Wood hadn't been worried when she'd called home from work and her babysitter mentioned that Daniel had just thrown up after eating an almond butter sandwich. "These things happen," she'd reassured her babysitter. "Just keep an eye on him." When Wood called back 15 minutes later, though, Daniel had developed diarrhea. When she called a third time, as she rushed home to their New Jersey suburb, he was struggling for breath. "Call 911 right now!" she instructed.
As Daniel emerged from an ambulance at the hospital, his face was covered with large red welts. The paramedics had found him in anaphylactic shock, which meant that his throat was swelling shut and his blood pressure was plummeting toward zero. They brought him back with injections of the stimulant epinephrine and an inflammation-squelching steroid. The next day, Wood and her husband learned that Daniel's reaction was from a life-threatening foodallergy to peanuts, a trace amount of which had likely cross-contaminated the almond butter.
Now in second grade, Daniel isn't the only one of his friends with food allergies. Five kids in his grade carry EpiPens, the prefilled syringes that contain enough epinephrine to reverse a severe allergic reaction. And his grade is hardly unique. In the U.S., about 1 in 12 children under 3 have food allergies, and around 150 die each year because of them. Outside the U.S., the problem is no less serious; the incidence of food allergies in kids around the world has at least doubled over the last decade.
"The increase seems to be part of a general rise in allergies of all kinds," says Scott Sicherer, M.D., a pediatric allergist at New York's Mount Sinai School of Medicine and author of Understanding and Managing Your Child's Food Allergies. While it's not clear what's behind this disturbing trend, many experts think it may have to do with the so-called Hygiene Hypothesis: that modern life -- with its lack of exposure to the "germiness" of unfiltered water, dirt, and animals -- can leave people's immune systems prone to overreact to harmless substances. The result: Even something as innocent-seeming as a peanut can cause the body's defenses to go into overdrive. As overactive immune cells release histamine and other inflammatory chemicals, they produce symptoms such as hives, itching, diarrhea, and in severe cases, life-threatening anaphylaxis.
While regular exposure to relatively harmless bacteria might help make us less allergy-prone, no medical expert would advocate going back to the days of rampant cholera and intestinal parasites. So where does that leave us? Fortunately, there are steps you can take to reduce your child's risk of developing food allergies, and ways to handle them if they arise.
Name has been changed
Jessica Snyder Sachs is the author of Good Germs, Bad Germs: Health and Survival in a Bacterial World.
A Family Affair
The first thing you'll want to figure out is your family's allergy history. "The more people in your family who have allergies, the greater the risk your child will have one," says Dr. Sicherer.
Kathleen Murray-Lyons, of Townsend, Delaware, has allergies and asthma, so her pediatrician suggested special measures to decrease her 1-year-old son James's chances of food allergies. He recommended she delay introducing James to certain foods that are common allergens, such as nuts and eggs, and offer even low-allergenic foods, like carrots and rice, only gradually and one at a time. "So far, so good," says Murray-Lyons.
Another tactic doctors recommend: Wait to introduce any solids to your baby until after 6 months (as opposed to 4 months), since studies have found that this significantly decreases the risk of your child developing food allergies. As for what you should eat if you're breastfeeding, studies are mixed as to whether it's helpful to eliminate allergenic foods from your diet. Talk to your doctor about your particular case.
How to Recognize and Respond
Figuring out that your child has a food allergy can be half the battle. Leslie Norman-Harris of Woolwich Township, New Jersey, recalls the night her daughter, Camryn, 4, ate a mouthful of rice with shrimp.
"When she told us her mouth felt itchy, my husband and I looked ateach other and said, 'Uh-oh.'" Fortunately the symptoms subsided, but they knew not to give Camryn any more shrimp.
Other symptoms (which almost always appear a few minutes after eating the offending food) :
- Itching (throat, mouth, eyes, skin, and/or ears)
- Lip swelling" "Rash (hives or a flare-up of eczema)
- Throat tightness (trouble swallowing or breathing)
- Tongue swelling that obstructs the mouth
- Chest pain
- Sudden paleness or blueness, unconsciousness, and/or a faint pulse
For a mild allergic reaction, such as stomach upset or a rash, watch your child carefully in case she gets worse, and call your doctor. Torelieve discomfort, you can give her a weight-appropriate dose of an antihistamine such as Benadryl or its generic equivalent (diphenhydramine).
If your child has a severe allergic reaction (like throat tightness, lip swelling, or unconsciousness), call 911. She may need an injection of epinephrine. Later, talk with your doctor about whether you should keep epinephrine on hand.
Testing and Treatment
If you think your child has a food allergy, see your doctor, who may recommend a pediatric allergist. He'll likely perform one of two tests: the classic skin-prick, which entails scratching a small amount of the allergen into the skin and watching for a reaction, or a blood test that screens for allergy-related antibodies.
But know that allergy tests are far from perfect, says Hugh Sampson, M.D., director of the Jaffee Food Allergy Institute at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. It's possible to have an allergy that doesn't show up on a test, or for a test to show that your child is mildly allergic to a certain food even though he can eat it without a problem. Bottom line: Diagnostic tests are best used to help confirm a suspected allergy, rather than to go fishing for possible ones.
Another alternative for determining food allergies is simply to talk about your child's symptoms with your doctor. Dr. Sampson, for example, says he looks for common patterns. Does the child always develop symptoms within minutes of having a particular food? Is it a food known to provoke allergies? If the answers are yes, then you may be dealing with a food allergy.
Once you know your child is allergic to a food, the best thing to do is avoid it entirely. (Allergy shots, while often effective for respiratory allergies, aren't usually used to treat food allergies because there's a greater risk of a dangerous reaction.) If your child does accidentally eat the wrong thing, the best line of defense is to follow your doctor's emergency plan, which will likely include relieving symptoms with an antihistamine or an emergency shot of epinephrine, depending on how severe the symptoms are.
Several promising treatments are now being studied. Most involve "immunizing" a person against the food allergen by injecting a modified version of it together with a substance that tells the immune system to "back off," or treat it as harmless. If these treatments pan out, they may become available as soon as 2010.
Steering clear of allergenic foods can be one of the toughest jobs a mom can take on. Fortunately, as of January 2006, the Food and Drug Administration requires all food labels to state if ingredients include any protein derived from one of the eight major allergenic foods:
- Tree nuts
But you still need to be vigilant about reading the fine print on labels, which can contain surprises.
"Who would ever have thought that baby-food meats would have dairy in them?" says Jennie Oko of Westmont, Illinois, who has became an ingredient detective ever since her son Matthew, 3, was diagnosed with a dairy allergy as a baby.
Not only do you need to be careful about keeping problem foods out of your house, you also need to teach your child to steer clear of them in other settings. "You don't want to scare him," Dr. Sicherer cautions. Just calmly explain, "Mommy and Daddy don't want you to feel sick, so it's important that you take food only from us and Grandma."
Dr. Sicherer even suggests role-playing together -- for instance, by pretending to be a visitor offering him a cookie. If he starts to accept it, say something like "Uh-oh. Remember what we talked about -- visitor doesn't know about your allergies."
You'll also need to get used to explaining your child's dietary restrictions when you eat out. A recent survey found that restaurant workers generally don't realize that something as small as a cross-contaminated serving spoon or frying pan could trigger a severe reaction.
"I Want What They're Having!"
For young children, not being allowed to eat what other kids do can be upsetting. When Sabrina Sciarrotta was 18 months, "she was so eager to have everything her big sister, Julia, had," recalls her mom, Monica, of Brea, California. "But while Julia was fine with dairy, Sabrina got headaches and broke out in rashes." To avoid a conflict, Sciarrotta now doles out Julia's yogurt and milk only when Sabrina is napping.
There will inevitably be times, though -- at birthday parties, for instance -- when your child can't ignore her limitations. Get in the habit of sending your child to such events with "safe" food alternatives. At school, be sure to explain her food allergy to her teachers and the nurse. If your child has a severe allergy, see if her school will even send notes home to her classmates' parents, explaining that certain foods shouldn't be sent in for sharing.
Outgrowing Food Allergies
The good news is that many children's food allergies go away by age 5. In fact, milk, egg, wheat, and soy allergies disappear nearly 85 percent of the time. So if your child has sworn off, say, soy for several years, ask the doctor if it's a good idea to reintroduce it to him again. She may suggest repeat allergy tests under medical supervision.
While you're still dealing with food allergies, however, remember that "life should not be viewed as a mine field," says Dr. Sicherer. Wood agrees: "We try to protect Daniel while letting him live a normal life."
* Name has been changed